What is Cryptography?

What is Cryptography?

Cryptography is indeed the science of secure communication. It involves techniques for encrypting and decrypting information, ensuring that it remains confidential and secure during transmission or storage. It makes it possible for users to safely retain confidential material or send it over unsecured networks, guaranteeing that only the intended receiver may view it.

This complex procedure entails using mathematical operations or algorithms to convert plaintext an original, human-readable message into cipher text. This encrypted text is unintelligible to anyone who do not possess the decryption key, protecting the contents of the communication.

The foundation of robust and secure connections as well as improved privacy in the digital sphere is cryptography. It essentially symbolizes the art and science of covert writing, with encryption serving as the means of transforming files or plain text into cipher text while maintaining security and confidentiality.

Objectives of Cryptography:

The goals of cryptography can be outlined as follows:

Confidentiality: Throughout its existence, data is protected from unwanted access by cryptography, thereby making sure that only those with permission have access to it.

Integrity: Data is protected from unauthorized changes by cryptography, which guarantees its accuracy and thoroughness and upholds its dependability.

Availability: Information systems must always be reachable by authorized users. System availability is increased by cryptographic measures, which provide timely and uninterrupted access.

Authentication: Cryptography verifies the identities of people or objects, making sure that only those with permission can access private information and resources.

Non-Repudiation: This feature makes sure that no one can say they were not there when a message or transaction was sent or received. Digital signatures, message authentication codes and timestamps are examples of techniques that create non-repudiation and offer a solid foundation for accountability and trust.

Types of Cryptography:

Symmetric Key:

In symmetric key cryptography, also known as secret-key cryptography, a single key is employed for both encryption and decryption processes, ensuring secure communication without the need for separate keys. Through the shared key, both the sender and recipient gain the ability to encrypt and decrypt messages securely. Nonetheless, one of the challenges with this approach is safely transferring the key between parties.

Asymmetric Key:

Two keys are used in asymmetric key cryptography, sometimes known as public-key cryptography; a private key and a public key. Every user has a different set of keys. While the public key is shared throughout the network, the private key is kept hidden. Messages encrypted with a public key can only be decrypted by the corresponding private key, eliminating the need for key exchange.

Hash Function:

A hash function uses plain text to create a fixed-length hash value, which makes it impossible to retrieve the original material. By creating hashes for files and comparing them to detect any changes, hashing algorithms provide a mathematical means of verifying the integrity of data.

Applications of Cryptography:

Secure Communications:

Cryptography encrypts communications between servers and clients, such as web browsers and web servers, ensuring confidentiality and security during data transmission.

End-to-end Encryption (E2EE):

E2EE encrypts data at the sender’s end and allows only the intended recipient to decrypt it. Widely used in messaging systems, it prevents third-party access, enhancing privacy and security.

Storing Data:

Cryptography is essential for secure data storage. For instance, services like Office 365 use encrypted communication protocols to access stored data, protecting it from unauthorized access.

Storing Passwords:

Cryptography safeguards stored passwords, preventing unauthorized access. Storing passwords in plaintext poses a security risk, but encryption ensures that passwords remain protected from hackers even if a system is compromised.

Cryptography plays a pivotal role in various aspects of digital security, enabling secure communication, data storage, and protection against unauthorized access and cyber threats.


Cryptography stands as the unyielding fortress that guards our sensitive information. Through its intricate techniques, it transforms plain text into an indecipherable code, ensuring that only authorized eyes can unlock its secrets. Cryptography is not merely a scientific process; it embodies the art of covert communication, establishing trust and accountability in the digital realm. As a guardian of confidentiality, integrity and availability, cryptography forms the backbone of secure connections and fortified privacy. It shields our communications, verifies our identities and secures our data, standing resilient against cyber threats. In a world where digital interactions reign, cryptography remains our steadfast protector, enabling a secure digital existence.

Leave a Comment